Retirement Planning: Defined Benefit and Defined Contribution Plan Pros & Cons
By Jeffrey Meenes, CFP® (Published Date September 27, 2022)
If you're still working and your retirement planning incorporates both a defined benefit and a defined contribution plan you likely stand to benefit as both retirement plan approaches have advantages that may counterbalance their disadvantages.
If you are retired and drawing a public or private pension along with Social Security, you are the beneficiary of a defined benefit. If you are receiving a monthly payout from a retirement plan that you (and perhaps your employer) contributed towards, you are drawing from a defined contribution plan.
Defined Benefit Plan Advantages
Public and private pension plans are defined benefits. Their monthly payouts are based on years of service, highest salary amounts received, and other factors. What defined benefit packages have in common is the longevity requirement and the fact that the employer contributes everything. Beneficiaries only have to stay with the company.
Also, beneficiaries don’t have to look after the solvency of the pension plan. They don’t have to track how their pension account is invested or worry about payouts. It’s all part of a compensation package that is another incentive to remain loyal to the employer for the long term.
We mentioned Social Security as a defined benefit. Technically, it is, even though you fork over 6.2 percent of your salary, and your employer kicks in the same. It’s a tax everyone pays and it leads to a defined benefit, based on your earnings and when you decide to receive your monthly check.
Defined Benefit Plan Disadvantages
The main disadvantage of a defined benefit plan is that the employer will often require a minimum amount of service. Although private employer pension plans are backed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corp (up to a certain amount), government pension plans don’t have the same, albeit sometimes shaky guarantees.
Likewise, defined benefit packages can succumb to the pressures of costs and the volatility of investment markets. Defined benefit plan payouts have become less popular as a private-sector tool for attracting and retaining employees.1
Defined Contribution Plan Advantages
Deferred contribution plans rely on employee contributions and can include employer matching funds. The most common defined contribution plans are regular and Roth IRAs, 401(k), and 403(b) plans. With good planning, the employee can set aside retirement savings, which they own and are transportable from one job to another. The interest compounds over the years with deferred taxation.
One advantage is that the owner has more flexibility in investing and contributing to the plan. Then there are the immediate and deferred tax advantages, which can accrue with before-tax earnings (regular IRAs, for example) and after-tax contributions (for Roth IRAs). You are taxed when you withdraw the money during your retirement years when you may be in a lower tax bracket.
Defined Contribution Plan Disadvantages
The downside of defined contribution plans is that they require discipline and wise management. Life tends to shape our financial priorities away from the horizon of retirement planning and savings. Also, most people don’t have the expertise to understand how to invest prudently.
As you can see, each plan option has its pros and cons. Defined benefit plans are an incentive for an employee to remain with the same employer, who assumes the risk and expenses. However, there are no guarantees that the plan will either exist or even offer the originally promised benefits in the future. Whereas defined contribution plans give the owner full control as well as opportunities to manage risks. However, poor savings habits and bad investment choices could result in minimal retirement savings.
Each type of retirement plan has its place in your retirement strategy. When it comes to deciding which basket to use to park your nest egg, your best bet is to diversify, work with a qualified fiduciary financial advisor and keep moving with the times towards a comfortable retirement.
This content is developed from sources believed to be providing accurate information, and provided by Meenes Wealth Partners. It may not be used for the purpose of avoiding any federal tax penalties. Please consult legal or tax professionals for specific information regarding your individual situation. The opinions expressed and material provided are for general information, and should not be considered a solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security.